Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women.

  • Mansoreh Norrozi Valie-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
  • Fedyeh Haghollahi Valie-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
  • Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh Valie-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
  • Parichehr Hanachi Department of Biology, Biochemistry Unite, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran.
Keywords: MENQOL, Post menopausal, Quality of Life, Soy Milk


To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women.Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG) and control (CG). Individuals in the SG (n = 34) received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl) and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl) per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23) received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3). The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month) using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL) questionnaire.A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05) years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031), while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical).Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms.


Saigal S, Tyson J. Measurement of Quality of Life of Survivors of Neonatal Intensive Care: Critique and Implications. Semin Perinatol 2008; 32: 59-66.

Ayers B, Hunter MS. Health-related quality of life of women with menopausal hot flushes and night sweats. Climacteric. 2013; 16: 235-9.

Greenblum CA, Rowe MA, Neff DF, Greenblum JS. Midlife women: symptoms associated with menopausal transition and early postmenopause and quality of life. Menopause. Menopause 2013; 20: 22-7.

Mishra G, Kuh D. Perceived change in quality of life during the menopause. Soc Sci Med. 2006; 62: 93-102.

Speroff L, Fritz MA.Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility. 7th Edition. Lippincott williams & wilkings. 2005.

Gambacciani M. New HRT options for the treatment of

menopausal symptoms and the maintenance of quality of life in postmenopausal women. Endocrine 2004; 24: 231-8.

Pitkin J, Smetnik VP, Vadász P, Mustonen M, Salminen K, Ylikangas S. Continuous combined hormone replacement therapy relieves climacteric symptoms and improves health-related quality of life in early postmenopausal women.Menopause Int 2007; 13: 116-23.

Hu YF, Sun ZQ. Quality of life in the treatment assessment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2005; 30: 299-303.

Welton AJ, Vickers MR, Kim J, Ford D, Lawton BA, MacLennan AH, et al. Health related quality of life after combined hormone replacement therapy: randomised controlled trial.BMJ 2008; 337: 1190.

Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML , et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 17; 288: 321-33.

Welty FK, Lee KS, Lew NS, Nasca M, Zhou JR. The association between soy nut consumption and decreased menopausal symptoms.J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007; 16: 361-9.

Ye YB, Wang ZL, Zhuo SY, Lu W, Liao HF, Verbruggen M, et al. Soy germ isoflavones improve menopausal symptoms but have no effect on blood lipids in early postmenopausal Chinese women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Menopause 2012; 19: 791-8.

Nahas EA, Nahas-Neto J, Orsatti FL, Carvalho EP, Oliveira ML, Dias R. Efficacy and safety of a soy isoflavone extract in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Maturitas 2007; 58: 249-58.

Yang TS, Wang SY, Yang YC, Su CH, Lee FK, Chen SC , et al. Effects of standardized phytoestrogen on Taiwanese menopausal women. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2012; 51: 229-35.

Chiechi LM, Putignano G, Guerra V, Schiavelli MP, Cisternino AM, Carriero C. The effect of a soy rich diet on the vaginal epithelium in postmenopause: a randomized double blind trial.Maturitas 2003; 45: 241-6.

García-Martín A, Quesada Charneco M, Alvárez Guisado A, Jiménez Moleón JJ, Fonollá Joya J, Muñoz-Torres M. [Effect of milk product with soy isoflavones on quality of life and bone metabolism in postmenopausal Spanish women: randomized trial].Med Clin (Barc) 2012; 138: 47-51.

Atkinson C. Compston JE, Day NE, Dowsett M, Bingham SA. The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone desity in women: a double- blind, randomized, placebo- controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79:326-33.

Petri Nahas E, Nahás Neto J, De Luca L, Traiman P, Pontes A, Dalben I. Benefits of soy germ isoflavones in postmenopausal women with contraindication for conventional hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas 2004; 48: 372-80.

Henderson VW, St John JA, Hodis HN, Kono N, McCleary CA, Franke AA , et al. Long-term soy isoflavone supplementation and cognition in women: a randomized, controlled trial. Neurology 2012; 78: 1841-8.

File SE, Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, Duffy R, Wiseman H.Cognitive improvement after 6 week of soy supplements in postmenoposal women is limited to frontal bone function Menopause2005; 12: 193-201.

Amato P, Young RL, Steinberg FM, Murray MJ, Lewis RD, Cramer MA , et al. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal quality of life. Menopause 2013; 20443-7.

Ho SC, Chan AS, Ho YP, So EK, Sham A, Zee B , et al. Effects of soy isoflavone supplementation on cognitive function in Chinese postmenopausal women: a double- lind, randomized, controlled trial. Menopause 2007; 14: 489-99.

Kok L, Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Grobbee DE, Lampe JW, van der Schouw YT. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on quality of life in postmenopausal women. Menopause 2005; 12: 56-62.

Basaria S, Wisniewski A, Dupree K, Bruno T, Song MY, Yao F , et al. Effect of high-dose isoflavones on cognition, quality of life, androgens, and lipoprotein in post-menopausal women. J Endocrinol Invest 2009; 32: 150-5.

Hassanzadeh A, Soy milk and its properties. Science of Food and Agriculture2010; 84. [In Persian] 26.Hilditch JR, Lewis J, Peter A, van Maris B, Ross A, Franssen E , et al. A menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire: development and psychometric properties. Maturitas 1996; 24: 161-75.

Shabani B,Nazem Gh,Pooraghaie F,Ardakani Z. Effects of training on quality of life in postmenopausal women with non-athletes. Research in Sports Sciences2007; 12: 123-33. [In Persian]

Golyan Tehrani Sh,Mir Mohammad A,Mahmoudi M,Khaledian Z. Study of quality of life and its patterns in different stages of menopause for women in Tehran.Hayat 2002; 8: 33-41. [In Persian]

Golkhoo, Ahmadi AR, Hanachi P, Barantalab F, Vaziri M .Determination of Daidzein and Genistein in Soy Milk in Iran by Using HPLC Analysis Method.Pakistan Journal of iological Science 2008; 11: 2254-58.

Levis S, Griebeler ML. The Role of Soy Foods in the Treatment of Menopausal Symptoms. J Nutr 2010; 140: 2318S-21S.

Williams RE, Levineb KB, Kalilani L, Lewisc J, Clark RV. Menopause-specific questionnaire assessment in US population-based study shows negative impact on healthrelated

quality of life. Maturitas 2009; 62: 153-9.

Levis S, Strickman-Stein N, Daniel R, Doerge DR , Krischer J. Design and baseline characteristics of The Soy Phytoestrogens As Replacement Estrogen (SPARE) Study - A clinical trial of the effects of soy isoflavones in menopausal women. Contemp Clin Trials. 2010; 31: 293-302.

Sa'eed Bawa. The Significance of Soy Protein and Soy Bioactive Compounds in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of Osteoporosis. J Osteoporos 2010; 2010: 891058.

Lewis JE, Nickell LA, Thompson LU, Szalai JP, Kiss A, Hilditch JR. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of dietary soy and flaxseed muffins on quality of life and hot flashes during menopause. Menopause 2006; 13: 631-42.

How to Cite
Norrozi M, Haghollahi F, Ramezanzadeh F, Hanachi P. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women. J Fam Reprod Health. 9(2):93-100.
Original Articles