Woman's Sexual Health Knowledge and Needs Assessment in Behavioral Clinics and Shelters in Tehran
AbstractObjective: The aim of this study was to assess the sexual health knowledge among females seeking consultation in behavioral clinics or shelters with emphasis on sexual routs of HIV transmission.Materials and methods: In this study 250 women who have attended behavioral clinics or shelters in Tehran were recruited and a standardized questionnaire which asked about demographics, sexual partner and knowledge about HIV/STDs was used. Results: The median age of our cases was 40.82% and among them 16% were married but lived alone. Among the total 250 cases, 56% (140) were sexually active in the last 30 days, 19.2% (48) had a history of a one-night stand and 2.4% had more than 1 sexual partner. 212 cases answered questions about condom use, 60% (127) of them did not use condoms at all. For knowledge about signs and symptoms related to STDs, 63% believed that abdominal pain has no relation to STDs. Also 44%, 43%, 37%,and 40% believed that dyspareunia, dysuria, malodorous vaginal discharge and change in color of vaginal discharge, respectively had no relation to STDs and 13% of whom presented with these symptoms in the past 30 days had not seek medical evaluation. Conclusion: It is a necessity to emphasize the use of condoms among the male population however in this study it was a challenge to do so because it goes against the government’s campaign of pro-natalism. Improving the knowledge of protected sex should start from the teenage years and at school to have maximum STD prevention planning. Most women in our study did not know about healthy sexual lifestyle and this shows the need of sexual health education before marriage or even at school.
WHO, 2016, Global AIDS Update progress report on HIV
AIDS Control Office, MOHME Center for Communicable Disease Management; database of HIV Surveys, December 2018 (unpublished)
UNAIDS (2017) Global AIDS update 2017.
Myer L, Kuhn L, Stein ZA, Wright TC Jr., Denny L (2005) Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and women's susceptibility to HIV infection: epidemiological evidence and biological mechanisms. Lancet Infect Dis 5: 786–794.
- Higgins, J. A., Hoffman, S., & Dworkin, S. L. (2010). Rethinking gender, heterosexual men, and women's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 435–445.
Jean K, Anglaret X, Moh R, Lert F, Dray-Spira R (2012) Barriers to HIV Testing in Côte d'Ivoire: The Role of Individual Characteristics and Testing Modalities. PLoS ONE 7(7): e41353. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041353
Seyed Alinaghi S, Paydary K, Kazerooni PA, Hosseini M, Sedaghat A, Emamzadeh-Fard S, et al. Evaluation of Stigma Index Among People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Six Cities in Iran. Thrita. 2013;2(4):69–75. doi: 10.5812/thrita.11801.
Moayedi-Nia S, Bayat Jozani Z, Esmaeeli Djavid G, et al. HIV, HCV, HBV, HSV, and syphilis prevalence among female sex workers in Tehran, Iran, by using respondent-driven sampling. AIDS Care. 2016;28;(4):487–490.
UNFPA, NEDICO. Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) Needs Assessment Among Mobile & Vulnerable Population (MPV) Communities in Zimbabwe. Nedico; 2008: 1-158.
Khani S, Moghaddam-Banaem L, Mohamadi E, Vedadhir AA, Hajizadeh E. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs Assessment Questionnaire. East Mediterr Health J. 2015;21(1):29-38
unesdoc, Unesco. Learning to live together in peace and harmony UNESCO Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific; 1998. Available from: unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001143/114357eo.pdf.
Fong EH, Catagnus RM, Brodhead MT, Quigley S, Field S. Developing the cultural awareness skills of behavior analysts. Behavior analysis in practice. 2016;9(1):84-94.
Nergui S. Understanding the Effectiveness of Cross-Cultural Video-Mediated Communication. 2012.
Cole RW. Educating everybody's children: Diverse teaching strategies for diverse learners: ASCD; 2008.
Eison J. Using active learning instructional strategies to create excitement and enhance learning. Jurnal Pendidikantentang Strategi Pembelajaran Aktif (Active Learning) Books. 2010;2(1):1-10.
Grabe WP, Stoller FL. Teaching and researching: Reading: Routledge; 2013.
Moin a, anbari akmal k. The Patient-Physician Communication. Daneshvar Medicine. 2010;17(85):71-80.
Noroozi M, Taleghani F, Merghati-khoei ES, Tavakoli M, Gholami A. Premarital sexual relationships: Explanation of the actions and functions of family. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research. 2014;19(4):424.
Mirmohammadaliei M, Khakbazan Z, Kazemnejad A, Abbaszadeh F. Comparison of quality of life and depression among women with normal and high risk pregnancies. Journal of hayat. 2007;13(1):35-42.
Agboghoroma CO. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Confronting the Challenge of Reproductive Health in Africa: A Textbook for Students and Development Practitioners. 2014:345.
SHafiei M. Prevention of Mother to Child HIV Transmission. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. 2011;18(1):104-11.
Education MoHaM. Prevention of Mother to Child HIV Transmission(persian). Iran: Ministry of Health and Medical Education
Vera E, Orozco H, Soto S, Aburto E. Condom effectiveness to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. Ginecologia y obstetricia de Mexico. 2008;76(2):88-96.
Speidel JJ, Weiss DC, Ethelston SA, Gilbert SM. Population policies, programmes and the environment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2009;364(1532):3049-65.
Law M, Harrison PF, Howson CP. In her lifetime: female morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: National Academies Press; 1996.
Farrington EM, Bell DC, DiBacco AE. Reasons People Give for Using (or Not Using) Condoms. AIDS and Behavior. 2016;20(12):2850-62.
Manlove J, Ryan S, Franzetta K. Patterns of contraceptive use within teenagers' first sexual relationships. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health. 2003;35(6):246-55.
De Visser R. One size fits all? Promoting condom use for sexually transmitted infection prevention among heterosexual young adults. Health education research. 2005;20(5):557-66.
Holden C, McLachlan R, Cumming R, Wittert G, Handelsman D, De Kretser DM, et al. Sexual activity, fertility and contraceptive use in middle-aged and older men: Men in Australia, Telephone Survey (MATeS). Human Reproduction. 2005;20(12):3429-34.
WHO, 2014,Global status report on violence prevention
Kiasalar M, Sherafati S. 18 questions and answers about the relationship between marriage and health. Iran: Javan; 2015.
Fund UNP. Sexual & reproductive health 2017 [Available from: https://www.unfpa.org/sexual-reproductive-health.
Fathallah M, editor Issues in reproductive health: Health and being a woman. Expert group meeting on women and health: Mainstreaming the gender perspective in the health sector, Tunisia, New York: United Nations; 1998.
Vlassoff C. Gender differences in determinants and consequences of health and illness. Journal of health, population, and nutrition. 2007;25(1):47.
Wagenlehner FM, Brockmeyer NH, Discher T, Friese K, Wichelhaus TA. The presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International. 2016;113(1-2):11.
Taft AJ, Powell RL, Watson LF. The impact of violence against women on reproductive health and child mortality in Timor‐Leste. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health. 2015;39(2):177-81.
Huecker MR, Smock W. Kentucky Domestic Violence. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2018
Robertson K, Murachver T. Women and men’s use of coercive control in intimate partner violence. Violence and victims. 2011;26(2):208-17.