The Effect of Psychoeducation on Anxiety in Subsequent Pregnancy Following Stillbirth: A Quasi-Experimental Study
AbstractObjective: We aimed to determine the effect of psychoeducation on women’s anxiety in subsequent pregnancy following stillbirth.Materials and methods: This two-arm, semi-experimental study was conducted on 100 women with subsequent pregnancy after stillbirth who visited the healthcare centers affiliated to a university of medical sciences in southeast of Iran in 2017. The eligible women were selected by using the convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into the intervention and control groups. The intervention group attended four psychoeducation sessions during four weeks according to the determined content. On the other hand, the control group received the routine care education. After eight weeks, data were collected using Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ). To analyze the data, independent t-test, Paired t-test and Chi-square U test, were run in SPSS, version 21.Results: No significant differences were observed between the study groups in terms of demographic characteristics (p > 0.05). Although the mean score of anxiety was not significantly different in the intervention and control groups prior to the psychoeducation sessions (p = 0.83), it was significantly lower in the intervention group after the psychoeducation intervention, compared to the control group (50.64 ± 20.05 vs. 63.54 ± 22.90; p = 0.0001).Conclusion: Psychoeducation intervention could diminish anxiety in women with subsequent pregnancy after stillbirth. Therefore, we recommend incorporating the components of psychoeducation related to the special needs of this group of women as a part of the routine prenatal care and educating healthcare providers to use these interventions.
Nuzum D, Meaney S, O’Donoghue K. The Spiritual and Theological Challenges of Stillbirth for Bereaved Parents. J Relig Health 2017; 56: 1081-95.
Mistry H, Heazell AEP, Vincent O, Roberts T. A structured review and exploration of the healthcare costs associated with stillbirth and a subsequent pregnancy in England and Wales. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2013; 13: 236.
Burden C, Bradley S, Storey C, Ellis A, Heazell AEP, Downe S, et al. From grief, guilt pain and stigma to hope and pride – a systematic review and metaanalysis of mixed-method research of the psychosocial impact of stillbirth. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016; 16: 9.
Mohadesi H, Feizi A, Ozgoli G, Saki K, Saei M. Experiences of mothers compatibility with perinatal mortality : A qualitative study. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Infertility 2016; 19: 19-29. [In Persian]
Paull C, Robson S. After stillbirth, what next? Management of the subsequent pregnancy after an unexplained stillbirth. O&G Magazine 2013; 15: 57-9.
Meaney S, Everard CM, Gallagher S, O’Donoghue K. Parents’ concerns about future pregnancy after stillbirth: a qualitative study. Health Expectations 2017; 20: 555–62.
O’Leary J. Grief and its impact on prenatal attachment in the subsequent pregnancy. Arch Womens Ment Health 2004; 7: 7–18.
Mills TA, Ricklesford C, Heazell AEP, Cooke A, Lavender T. Marvelous to mediocre: findings of national survey of UK practice and provision of care in pregnancies after stillbirth or neonatal death. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016; 16: 101.
Mills TA. Improving support in pregnancy after stillbirth or neonatal death: IMPs study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2015; 15: A14.
Côté-Arsenault D, Donato, K. Emotional cushioning in pregnancy after perinatal loss. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 2011; 29: 81-92.
Côté-Arsenault D. Threat appraisal, coping, and emotions across pregnancy subsequent to perinatal loss. Nurs Res 2007; 56: 108-16.
Wojcieszek AM, Boyle FM, Belizan JM, Cassidy J, Cassidy P, Erwich JJ, et al. Care in subsequent pregnancies following stillbirth: An international survey of parents. An international Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2016; 125: 193-201.
Meredith P, Wilson T, Branjerdporn G, Strong J, Desha L. “Not just a normal mum”: a qualitative investigation of a support service for women who are pregnant subsequent to perinatal loss. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2017; 17: 6.
Karamoozian M, Askarizadeh G. Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention on anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences 2013; 20: 606-21. [In Persian]
Khanzadeh A, Rostampour A, Nedaee N, Khosrojavid M. Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral education on anxiety during pregnancy and delivery method in primiparous women. Journal of Nursing Education 2017; 5: 24-32. [In Persian]
Thomas N, Komiti A, Judd F. Pilot early intervention antenatal group program for pregnant women with anxiety and depression. Arch Womens Ment Health 2014; 17: 503–9.
Fenwick J, Toohill1 J, Gamble J, Creedy DK, Buist A, Turkstra E, et al. Effects of a midwife psycho-education intervention to reduce childbirth fear on women’s birth outcomes and postpartum psychological wellbeing. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2015; 15: 284.
Ahadi M, Taavoni S, Ganji T, Hosseini F. Comparison of maternal anxiety between primigravid women and pregnant women with the history of previous fetal or neonatal death. Iran Journal of Nursing 2006; 19: 49-55. [In Persian]
Akbarzadeh M, Toosi M, Zare N, Sharif F. Effect of
relaxation and attachment behaviors training on anxiety in first-time mothers in shiraz city, 2010: a randomized clinical trial. Qom Univ Med Sci J 2013; 6: 14-23.
Van den Bergh B. The influence of maternal emotions during pregnancy on fetal and neonatal behavior. Pre-and Perinatal Psychology Journal 1990; 5: 119-30.
Karamoozian M, Askarizadeh G, Behroozy N. The study of psychometric properties of pregnancy related anxiety questionnaire. Journal of Clinical Nursing and Midwifery 2017; 5: 22-34. [In Persian]
Tektaş P, Çam O. The Effects of nursing care based on watson's theory of human caring on the mental health of pregnant women after a pregnancy loss. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2017; 31: 440–6.
Côté-Arsenault D, Schwartz K, Krowchuk H, McCoy TP. Evidence-based Intervention with women pregnant after perinatal loss. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2014; 39:177-86.
Carrera L, Diez-Domingo J, Montanana V, Sancho MJ, Minguez J, Monleon J. Depression in women suffering perinatal loss. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1998; 62: 149–53.
Wright MP. Childbirth education for parents experiencing pregnancy after perinatal loss. The Journal of Perinatal Education 2005; 14: 9–15.
Côté-Arsenault D, Freije MM. Support groups helping women through pregnancies after loss. West J Nurs Res 2004; 26: 650–70.
Smart CJ, Smith BL. A transdisciplinary team approach to perinatal loss. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2013; 38: 110–14.
Côté-Arsenault D, Donato K, Earl SS. Watching and worrying: early pregnancy after loss experiences. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2006; 31: 356–63.
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Family and Reproductive Health
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.