Microbial Pathogens Implicated in Reproductive Health Infections in a Special Treatment Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria

  • Adenike Ogunshe Mail Applied Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Botany & Microbiology, University o
  • Rasheed Bakare Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Nojeem Fasina Special Treatment Clinic, Department of Medical Microbiology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, N
Keywords:
Age, Gender, Health policies, Reproductive health infections, Sexually transmissible infections

Abstract

Objective: The lack of adequate recognition of health importance of non-HIV reproductive health infections (RHIs) in Nigeria has led into this study, which was to determine clinical pathogens in non-HIV RHI in Nigeria using a tertiary health facility as case study.Materials and Methods: A nine-year investigation was carried out between 1997 and 2005 on 4047 (n = 1626 males; n = 2421 females) patients presenting at Special Treatment Clinic (STC) of University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan, Nigeria. Routine laboratory procedures using appropriate culture media, culture conditions, and current phenotypic taxonomic tools for classification of isolated pathogens were employed.Results: Age (p = 0.019) and gender (p<0.0001) were related to the recovery rates of pathogens Candida species (55.6 %), Neisseria gonorrhoae (11.1%), Gardenella vaginalis (10.3%), Escherichia coli (9.2 %), Klebsiella sp. (4.2%), streptococci (4.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (2.3%), Proteus sp., (1.8%), Haemophilus ducreyi (0.5%), Trichomonas vaginalis (0.44%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.18%). Candida and Gardenella vaginalis species were mostly recovered from female patients, while N.gonorrhoeae were mostly isolated from male patients. Age brackets for the recovery of pathogens were Neisseria gonorrhoeae (16-30 years); Gardenella vaginalis (21-25 and 31-35 years) and C.albicans (21-30 years).Conclusion: Candida, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Gadrenella vaginalis were the most recovered pathogens from patients presenting at Special Treatment Clinic of a tertiary health institution in Nigeria, and the relationship between age, gender and the aetiological agents was statistically significant.

References

World Health Organization. Global prevalence and incidence of selected curable sexually transmitted infections. Overview and estimates 2001; Geneva.

Mayaud P, Uledi E, Cornelissen J, ka-Gina G, Todd J, Rwakatare M, et al. Risk scores to detect cervical infections in urban antenatal clinic attenders in Mwanza, Tanzania. Sex Transm Infect 1998;74 :S139-46.

Røttingen J, Cameron DW, Garnett GP. A systematic review of the epidemiological interactions between classic sexually transmitted diseases and HIV: how much is really known? Sex Transm Dis 2001; 28: 579–97.

Oni AA, Ogundiran N, Bakare RA, Adewole IF, Olumide SK, Tomori BB. The role of a secondary health center in the management of sexually transmitted diseases in Nigeria. Nig Med Pract 1999; 37: 35-7.

Johnson LF, Coetzee DJ, Dorrington RE. Epidemiological Review Sentinel surveillance of sexually transmitted infections in South Africa: a review. Sex Transm Infect 2005; 1: 287-93.

Bakare AA. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among the sexual partners of women with trichomoniasis in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Clin Exp Microbiol 2003; 4: 107-14.

Ogbuile JN, Obiajuru IOC, Njoku AJ. The migratory of the Igbos of southeastern Nigeria and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Nig J Microbiol 2003; 17: 50-6.

Bailey WR, Scott EG. Diagnostic microbiology, 4th ed The C.V. Mosby Co., Saint Louis, USA. 1974.

Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Part 1. UK: Cambridge University Press.1998: 454.

Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Part 2. UK: Cambridge University Press. 2000: 434.

Shendre MC, Tiwari RR. Role of occupation as a risk factor for sexually transmitted disease: A case control study. Int J Occup Environ Med 2005; 9: 35-7.

Victorian Infectious Diseases Bulletin. Sexually transmissible infections 2005; 8:20-28.

Christian P, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Roess AA, Wu L, Yuenger JD, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of chlamydia and gonorrhoea among rural Nepali women. Sex Transm Infect 2005; 81: 254-8.

Bogaerts J, Ahmed A, Akhter N, Begum N, Rahman M, Nahar S, et al. Sexually transmitted infections in a basic healthcare clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh: syndromic management for cervicitis is not justified. Sex Transm Infect 1999; 75:437–8.

Centre for Disease Control. Haemophilus information, 2007. Available in: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/ publications/pink/hib.pdf 1/08/07.

Musher DM. Haemophilus species 2005. Available in: http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch030.htm.

Bakare RA, Oni AA, Fayemiwo SA, Umar US. Trichomoniasis in women attending sexually transmitted diseases clinic- review of the present situation in Ibadan, Nigeria. Nig J Gen Urin Med 2002; 2: 5-10.

Douglas F. Neisseria. 2005. Available in //http://www.Neisseria.201.htm. 23/12/05.

Fortenberry JD, Brizendine EJ, Katz BP, Wools KK, Blythe MJ, Orr DP. Subsequent sexually transmitted infections among adolescent women with genital infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or Trichomonas vaginalis. Sex Transm Dis 1999; 26: 26–32.

Orr D, Johnston K, Brizendine E, Barry K, Fontenberry JD. Subsequent sexually transmitted infection in urban adolescents and young adults. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001; 155: 947–53.

DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, Crosby RA, Sionean C, Cobb BK, Harrington K, et al. Sexual risk behaviors associated with having older sex partners: a study of black adolescent females. Sex Transm Dis 2002; 29: 20–4.

Kissinger P, Clayton JL, O’Brien ME, Kent C, Whittington WL, Fortenberry D, et al. Older partners not associated with recurrence among female teenagers infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. Sex Transm Dis 2002; 29:144–9.

O’Hara CM, Brenner FW, Miller JM. Classification, identification, and clinical significance of Proteus, Providencia and Morganella. Clin Microbiol Revs 2000; 13 : 534-46.

Rossi GG and Mendoza M. Incidencia de tricomoniasis vaginal en la consulta externa de ginecologia. Boletin Médico de Postgrado 1996; 12: 34.

Petrin D, Delgaty K, Bhatt R, Garber G. Clinical and microbiological aspects of Trichomonas vaginalis. Clin Microbiol Revs1998; 11: 300-17.

Honigberg B. Trichomonads of importance in human medicine. In Kreier JP. (ed). Parasitic protozoan 1978; 2: 275.

Krieger JN. Urological aspects of trichomoniasis. Invest Urol 1981;18: 411.

Oni AA, Fasina NA, Fawole AO, Bakare RA. Prevalence of Gardenella vaginalis in males in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Clin Exp Microbiol 2001; 2: 11-3.

Wilkinson D, Connolly A, Harrison A, Lurie M, Abdool Karim SS. Sexually transmitted disease syndromes in rural South Africa: results from health facility surveillance.1998; Sex Transm Dis 5:20–3.

O’Farrell N. Increasing prevalence of genital herpes in developing countries: implications for heterosexual HIV transmission and STI control programmes.1999; Sex Transm Infect 75: 377–84.

Nagot N, Meda N, Ouangré A, Ouedraogo A, Yaro S, Sombie I, et al. Review of STI and HIV epidemiological data from 1990 to 2001 in urban Burkina Faso: implications for STI and HIV control. Sex Transm Infect 2004; 80: 124–9.

Funami I, Sonko R, Marumo E, Odugwu S, Hamelmann C. STIs routine monitoring and clinical sentinel survey- llance of sexually transmitted infections. In: Ijumba P, Candy Day C and Ntuli A, Eds. South Afr Health Rev, Durban: Health Systems Trust, 2004; 229-42.

Chervenkova A. Sredkova M. Tanchev, S. Plevneli, B. A clinical and microbiological study of bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis in pregnant women. Akush Ginekol (Sofia).1999; 38:33-36.

Oleszczuk JJ, Keith LG. Vaginal infection: prophylaxis and perinatal outcome--a review of the literature. Int J Fertil Womens Med 2000; 45:358-67.

How to Cite
1.
Ogunshe A, Bakare R, Fasina N. Microbial Pathogens Implicated in Reproductive Health Infections in a Special Treatment Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Fam Reprod Health. 3(1):9-17.
Section
Original Articles