Comparison of the Effects of Dry Cupping and Acupressure at Acupuncture Point (BL23) on the Women with Postpartum Low Back Pain (PLBP) Based on Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaires in Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial
AbstractObjective: To evaluate the effects of acupuncture branches on postpartum low back pain severity among the primiparous subjects visiting the selected educational centers affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.Materials and methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 150 (each group of 50 people) cases in 2012. Cupping therapy was done every other day in four 15-20 minute sessions a week. Besides, acupressure was applied according to the circular model for 20 minutes. The patients filled out the short form McGill Pain Questionnaires. Then, the data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and repeated measurements and Chi-square tests.Results: In the cupping group, the mean difference of postpartum Low Back Pain intensity reached from 31.8 ± 10.8 before the intervention to 9.0 ± 6.7, 7.5 ± 6.6, and 4.1 ± 3.6 immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively and the results of repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant difference between the three follow-up periods (p < 0.05). On the other hand, this measure reached from 31.1 ± 11.0 before the intervention to 22.1 ± 7.3, 16.2±6.0, and 11.7 ± 5.3 immediately, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively in the acupressure group.Conclusion: The study results showed that these modalities could sedate the pain. Therefore, they can be applied as efficient treatments for reducing the low back pain.
Jennifer S, Jonathan N. Pregnancy and low back pain. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2008; 1: 137-41.
Fast A, Shapiro D, Ducommun EJ, Friedmann LW, Bouklas T, Floman Y. Low-backpain in pregnancy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1987; 12:368-71.
van de Pol G, de Leeuw JR, van Brummen HJ, Bruinse HW, Heintz AP, van derVaart CH. The Pregnancy Mobility Index: a mobility scale during and after pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2006; 85:786-91.
Noren L, Ostgaard S, Johansson G, Ostgaard HC. Lumbar back and posterior pelvic pain during pregnancy: a 3-year follow-up. Eur Spine J 2002; 11: 267-71.
Aslan E, Fynes M. Symphysial pelvic dysfunction. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2007; 19: 133-9.
Depledge J, McNair PJ, Keal-Smith C, Williams M. Management of symphysis pubis dysfunction during pregnancy using exercise and pelvic support belts. Phys Ther 2005; 85: 1290-300.
Bastiaanssen JM, de Bie RA, Bastiaenen CH, Essed GG, van den Brandt PA. A historical perspective on pregnancy-related low back and/or pelvic girdle pain.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2005; 120:3-14.
Morgen IM, Pohjanen AI. Low back pain and pelvic pain during pregnancy: prevalence and risk factors.Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2005; 30:983-91.
Lin ML1, Wu HC, Hsieh YH, Su CT, Shih YS, Lin CW, et al. Evaluation of the effect of laser acupuncture and cupping with ryodoraku and visual analog scale on low back pain. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012; 2012:521612.
Farhadi K, Schwebel DC, Saeb M, Choubsaz M, Mohammadi R, Ahmadi A. The effectiveness of wet-cupping for nonspecific low back pain in Iran: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2009; 17:9-15.
Guerreiro da Silva JB, Nakamura MU, Cordeiro JA, Kulay L Jr. Acupuncture for low back pain in pregnancy--a prospective, quasi-randomised, controlled study.Acupunct Med 2004; 22:60-7.
Lim S: WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2010; 7:167-8.
Sherman KJ, Cherkin DC, Hogeboom CJ. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic low-back pain by traditional Chinese medical acupuncturists. J Altern Complement Med 2001; 7:641-50.
Grafton KV, Foster NE, Wright CC. Test-retest reliability of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire: assessment of intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement in patients with osteoarthritis. Clin J Pain 2005; 21:73-82.
Stein C, Mendl G. The German Counterpart to McGill Pain Questionnaire. Pain 1988; 32:251-5.
Bagheri H, Noorian J, Ebrahimi H, Maghsood Z, Atash sokhan G. Prevalence and specifications of postoperative sore throat following general endotracheal anesthesia in patients undergoing surgery. Journal of Knowledge & Health 2007; 2:6-10.
Keshavarz M, Dadgari A, Miri F. Assessment of Shorted Mcgill Form. Health & Knowledge 2007; 2: 35.
Kravetz RE. Cupping glass. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 2004; 99: 1418.
Yip YB, Tse SH. The effectiveness of relaxation acupoint stimulation and acupressure with aromatic lavender essential oil for non-specific low back pain in Hong Kong: a randomised controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2004; 12:28-37.
Sultana A, Ur Rahman K, Farzana M, Lone A. Efficacy of Hi jamat bila Shurt (dry cupping) on intensity of pain in dysmenorrhea; a preliminary study. Anc Sci Life 2010; 30:47-50.
Klein AA, Djaiani G, Karski J, et al. Acupressure wristbands for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2004; 18: 68-71.
Zhang YF, Ren GF, Zhang XC. Acupuncture plus cupping for treating insomnia in college students. J Tradit Chin Med 2010; 30: 185-9.
Kim JI, Kim TH, Lee MS, Kang JW, Kim KH, Choi JY, et al. Evaluation of wet-cupping therapy for persistent non-specific low back pain: a randomised, waiting-list controlled, open-label, parallelgrouppilot trial. Trials 2011; 12:146.
Hsieh LL, Kuo CH, Yen MF, Chen TH. A randomizedcontrolled clinical trial for low back pain treated by acupressure and physical therapy. Prev Med 2004;39:168-76.
Yeh CH, Chien LC, Chiang YC, Huang LC. Auricular point acupressure for chronic low back pain: a feasibility study for 1-week treatment. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012; 2012: 383257.
Yip YB, Tse SH. The effectiveness of relaxation acupoint stimulation and acupressure with aromatic lavender essential oil for non-specific low back painin Hong Kong: a randomised controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2004; 12:28-37.
Lauche R, Cramer H, Choi KE, Rampp T, Joyonto F, J Dobos G, et al .The influence of a series of five dry cupping treatments on pain and mechanical thresholds in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain – a randomised controlled pilot study. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011, 11:63.