The Best Age for Pregnancy and Undue Pressures
In western countries we assist at the paradox that fertility is socially discouraged by a mindset that depicts fertility as a resource to exploit as late as possible. So, couples have high expectative about the advantages of delayed parenthood, but they are scarcely informed about its risks. Scientific data suggests to anticipate the first pregnancy, but social pressures impose to wait, though delayed childbearing can provoke sterility and a greater gap between generations. The best age to become parents should be autonomously decided by a couple, under the condition of being a free informed choice and not a social imposition, but currently this is not guaranteed to western women and men.
Rossen LM, Osterman MJK, Hamilton BE, Martin JA. Quarterly provisional estimates for selected birth indicators, 2014–Quarter 1, 2016. National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics System, Vital Statistics Rapid Release Program. 2016.
Carter D, Watt AM, Braunack-Mayer A, Elshaug AG, Moss JR, Hiller JE, et al . Should there be a female age limit on public funding for assisted reproductive technology? J Bioeth Inq 2013; 10:79-91.
Matthews TJ, Hamilton BE. Delayed childbearing: more women are having their First child later in life. NCHS Data Brief 2009; 21:1-8.
Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Ostermann MJK. Births: Final data for 2012. National vitalstatistics report. 2013; Vol. 62, No. 9. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics.
Briggs H. ONS: Mothers' average age hits 30. 2014.
Parry L. Average age of UK mother is 34 as number of babies born falls to seven-year low. Dailymail 25 Feb 2015.
Goisis A, Sigle-Rushton W. Childbearing postponement and child well-being: a complex and varied relationship? Demography 2014; 51:1821-41.
Balasch J, Gratacós E. Delayed childbearing: effects on fertility and the outcome of pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 24:187-93.
Mazza D, Cannold L, Nagle C, McKay F, Brijnath B. Making decisions about fertility--three facts GPs need to communicate to women. Aust Fam Physician 2012; 41:343-6.
Bellieni CV. Neonatal risks from in vitro fertilization and delayed motherhood. World J Clin Pediatr 2012;1:34-6.
Alonzo AA. Long-term health consequences of delayed childbirth: NHANES III. Womens Health Issues. 2002;12:37-45.
Breart G. Delayed childbearing. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1997;75:71-3.
Andersen A-MN, Wohlfahrt J, Christens P, Olsen J, Melbye M. Maternal age and fetal loss: population based register linkage study. BMJ 2000; 320:1708– 12.
Baird DT, Collins J, Egozcue J, Evers LH, Gianaroli L, Leridon H, et al . Fertility and ageing. Hum Reprod Update. 2005; 11:261-76.
Stein Z, Susser M. The risks of having children in later life. West J Med 2000; 173:295-6.
Kovacs P. The down side of delayed childbearing. Medscape, 2010.
Spandorfer SD, Bendikson K, Dragisic K Schattman G, Davis OK, Rosenwaks Z. Outcome of in vitro fertilization in women 45 years and older who use autologous oocytes Fertil Steril 2007;87:74-6.
Nyboe Andersen A, Goossens V, Bhattacharya S, Ferraretti AP, Kupka MS, de Mouzon J, et al. Assisted reproductive technology and intrauterine inseminations in Europe, 2005: results generated from European registers by ESHRE: ESHRE. The European IVF Monitoring Programme (EIM), for the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Hum Reprod 2009; 24:1267-87.
Salihu HM, Shumpert MN, Slay M, Kirby RS, Alexander GR. Childbearing beyond maternal age 50 and fetal outcomes in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 2003;102:1006-14.
Sonobe M, Usui M, Hiroi K, Asai H, Hiramatsu M, Nekoda Y, et al. Influence of older primiparity on childbirth, parenting stress, and mother-child interaction. Jpn J Nurs Sci2016; 13:229-39.
Lampinen R, Vehviläinen-Julkunen K, Kankkunen P. A review of pregnancy in women over 35 years of age. Open Nurs J 2009; 3: 33-8.
Grimshaw KE, Aksoy B, Palmer A, Jenner K, Oliver EM, Maskell J, et al. Prospective food diaries demonstrate breastfeeding characteristics in a UK birth cohort. Matern Child Nutr 2015; 11:703-11.
Petropanagos A. Reproductive 'choice' and egg freezing. Cancer Treat Res 2010; 156:223-35.
Bianchi SM. Changing families, changing workplaces. Future Child. 2011;21:15-36 .
Zhang X. Earnings of women with and without children. Perspectives. Statistics Canada Ed. 2009. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2009103/pdf/10823-eng.pdf
Beaupré P, Cloutier E. Navigating Family Transitions: Evidence from the General Social Survey, 2006. General Social Survey, Cycle 20: Family Transitions Survey. Statistics Canada, 2007. Catalogue no. 89-625-XIE— No. 002.
Cooke A, Mills TA, Lavender T. Advanced maternal age: Delayed childbearing is rarely a conscious choice A qualitative study of women's views and experiences. Int J Nurs Stud 2012; 49:30-9.
Friedmann D. Perk Up: Facebook and Apple Now Pay for Women to Freeze Eggs. 2014.
Benzies K, Tough S, Tofflemire K, Frick C, Faber A, Newburn-Cook C. Factors influencing women's decisions about timing of motherhood. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2006; 35:625-33.
Tough S, Tofflemire K, Benzies K, Fraser-Lee N, Newburn-Cook C. Factors influencing childbearing decisions and knowledge of perinatal risks among Canadian men and women. Matern Child Health J 2007; 11:189-98.
Gossett DR, Nayak S, Bhatt S, Bailey SC. What do healthy women know about the consequences of delayed childbearing? J Health Commun 2013; 18 Suppl 1:118-28.
Jay M. The Defining Decade: Why Your Twenties Matter--And How to Make the Most of Them Now. Hatchet Book Group, New York, 2012.
MacDougall K, Beyene Y, Nachtigall RD. 'Inconvenient biology:' advantages and disadvantages of first-time parenting after age 40 using in vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod 2012; 27:1058-65.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Gynecologic Practice and Practice Committee. Female age-related fertility decline. Committee Opinion No. 589. Fertil Steril 2014;101:633-4.
|Issue||Vol 10, No 3 (September 2016)|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|