Sexually Transmitted Infections in Tehran

  • Maryam Afrakhteh Mail Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Hadi Beyhaghi Center for Clinical Excellence, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Afshin Moradi Department of Pathology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Seyed Jalil Hosseini Urology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Atossa Mahdavi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Sima Giti Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Shahrzad Zadeh Modarres Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Zahra Zonoobi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahdieh Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Homeyra Masoomi Department of Pathology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords:
Sexually transmitted infections, Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia

Abstract

Objective: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a public health problem of major significance in most parts of the world. This study aimed to detect the most prevalent pathogens in patients with signs and symptoms of STI referring to a group of university clinics in Tehran.Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study using randomized cluster sampling, 507 consecutive male and female patients presenting with signs and symptoms of STI referring to selected health care centers of Shahid Beheshti University were evaluated between May 2005 and May 2007. Diagnosis was made according to WHO criteria for signs and symptoms of STI in addition to microscopic study of genital discharges. Results: The most prevalent STI pathogens were Candida, Trichomona, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia with respective frequencies of 53.96%, 18.87%, 4.91% and 22.26% in women and 47.10%, 8.67%, 9.50% and 34.71% in men.Conclusion: Candida was detected in majority of cases. Chlamydia was the most prevalent STI in both sexes. Simple preventive care has crucial role in decreasing the frequency of STIs in society.

References

World Health Organization. Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections. 2003, Geneva, Switzerland.

Low N, Broutet N, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Barton P, Hossain M, Hawkes S. Global control of sexually transmitted infections. Lancet 2006; 368: 2001-16.

Glasier A, Gülmezoglu AM, Schmid GP, Moreno CG, Van Look PF. Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death. Lancet 2006; 368: 1595-607.

Aral SO, Hawkes S, Biddlecom A, Padian N. Disproportionate impact of sexually transmitted diseases on women. Emerg Infect Dis 2004; 10: 2029-30.

Blanc AK. The effect of power in sexual relationships on sexual and reproductive health: an examination of the evidence. Studies Fam Plann 2001; 32: 189–213.

Bolan G, Ehrhardt AA, Wasserheit JN. Gender perspectives and STDs. In: Holmes KK, Sparling PF, Mårdh PA, et al, eds. Sexually transmitted diseases, 3rd edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1999: 117–27 .

World Health Organization. Prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections: draft global strategy. Fifty-Ninth World Health Assembly 2006.

Wahdan MH. The Middle East: past, present and future. AIDS Asia 1995; 2: 21-3.

Collumbien M, Hawkes S. Missing men‘s messages: does the reproductive health approach respond to men‘s sexual health needs? Cult Health Sexual 2000; 2: 135–50.

Low N, Egger M, Sterne JA, Harbord RM, Ibrahim F, Lindblom B, et al. Incidence of severe reproductive tract complications associated with diagnosed genital chlamydial infection: the Uppsala Women’s Cohort Study. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82: 212–8.

Shobeiri F, Nazari M. A prospective study of genital infections in Hamedan, Iran. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2006; 37 ( Suppl 3): 174-7.

Geiger AM, Foxman B, Gillespie BW. The epidemio-logy of vulvovaginal candidiasis among university students. Am J Public Health 1995; 85: 1146-8.

Geiger AM, Foxman B. Risk factors in vulvovaginal candidiasis: A case-control study among university students. Epidemiology 1996; 7: 182-7.

Hurley R, De Louvois J. Candida vaginitis. Postgrad Med J 1979; 55: 645-7.

Sutton M, Sternberg M, Koumans EH, McQuillan G, Berman S, Markowitz L. The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among reproductive-age women in the United States, 2001-2004. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45: 1319-26.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2005, Atlanta, GA. US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006.

Centers for Disease Control, Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 1997 Annual Report.

Miller WC, Ford CA, Morris M, Handcock MS, Schmitz JL, Hobbs MM,et al. Prevalence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections among young adults in the United States. JAMA 2004; 291: 2229-36.

Gaydos CA, Howell MR, Pare B, Clark KL, Ellis DA, Hendrix RM,et al. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in female military recruits. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 739-44.

Cook RL, St George K, Lassak M, Tran N, Anhalt JP, Rinaldo CR. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in colledge women with a polymerase chain reaction assay. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 28: 1002-7.

Burstein GR, Waterfield G, Joffe A, Zenilman JM, Quinn TC, Gaydos CA. Screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia by DNA amplification in adolescents attending middle school health centers. Opportunity for early intervention. Sex Transm Dis 1998; 25: 395-402.

Neu NM, Grumet S, Saiman L, McMahon DJ, Westhoff C. Genital chlamydial disease in an urban, primarily Hispanic, family planning clinic. Sex Transm Dis 1998; 25: 317-21.

Datta SD, Sternberg M, Johnson RE, Berman S, Papp JR, McQuillan G, et al. Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in the United States among persons 14 to 39 years of age, 1999 to 2002. Ann Intern Med 2007; 147: 89-96.

Sturm-Ramirez K, Brumblay H, Diop K, Guèye-Ndiaye A, Sankalé JL, Thior I,, et al. Molecular epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in high-risk women in Senegal, West Africa. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 138-45.

Kilmarx PH, Black CM, Limpakarnjanarat K, Shaffer N, Yanpaisarn S, Chaisilwattana P, et al. Rapid assessment of sexually transmitted diseases in a sentinel population in Thailand: prevalence of chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, and syphilis among pregnant women--1996. Sex Transm Infect 1998; 74: 189-93.

Warszawski, J, Meyer, L, Weber, P. Criteria for selective screening of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending private gynecology practices. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1999; 86: 5-10.

Bakhtiari A, Firoozjahi A. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending health centres in Babol: prevalence and risk factors. East Mediterr Health J 2007; 13: 1124-31.

Madani TA. Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia. BMC Infect Dis 2006; 6: 3.

Al-Mutairi N, Joshi A, Nour-Eldin O, Sharma AK, El-Adawy I, Rijhwani M. Clinical patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual practices in the Farwaniya region of Kuwait. Int J Dermatol 2007; 46: 594-9.

Mahafzah AM, Al-Ramahi MQ, Asa'd AM, El-Khateeb MS. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among sexually active Jordanian females. Sex Transm Dis. 2008; 35: 607-10.

Lubbad AM, Al-Hindi AI. Bacterial, viral and fungal genital tract infections in Palestinian pregnant women in Gaza, Palestine. West Afr J Med 2007; 26: 138-42.

Al-Fouzan A, Al-Mutairi N. Overview of incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in Kuwait. Clin Dermatol 2004; 22: 509-12.

How to Cite
1.
Afrakhteh M, Beyhaghi H, Moradi A, Hosseini SJ, Mahdavi A, Giti S, Zadeh Modarres S, Zonoobi Z, Masoomi H. Sexually Transmitted Infections in Tehran. J Fam Reprod Health. 2(3):123-128.
Section
Original Articles