Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.
AbstractObjective:To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.Materials and methods:It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.Results:The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49%) in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%). Stunting (p < 0.01), wasting (p < 0.05) and underweight (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.Conclusion:In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.
Smith L. Arsenic in drinking water. WELL fact sheet. WELL- resource centre network for water. Sanitation and Environmental Health; 2005: 1-52.
Ahamed S, Sengunta MK, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Mukherjee A, Rahman MM et al. An eight year study report on arsenic contamination in ground water and health effects in Eruani village, Bangladesh and an approach for its itigation. Health Popul Nutr 2006; 24: 129-41.
Chakraborti D, Sengupta MK, Rahaman MM, Ahmad S, Chowdhury UK, Hossain MA. Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in the Ganga- Megna- Bramoputra Plain. J Environ Monti 2004; 6: 74-83.
Chatterjee A, Das D, Mandal BK, Chowdhury TR, Samanta G, Chakraborti D. Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Part1. Arsenic species in drinking water and urine of the affected people. Analyst 1995;120:643-50.
Ahmad SA. Arsenic: water contamination and health hazard. 1sted. Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 2000: 32-7.
Chowdhury UK, Rahaman MM, Mandal BK, Paul K, Lodh D, Biswas BK.Groundwater arsenic ontamination and human suffering in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Environ Sci; 2001; 8: 393-415.
Dhar RK, Biswas BK, Samanta G, Mandal BK, Chakraborti D, Roy S et al. Groundwater arsenic calamity in Bangladesh. Current Sci1997; 73: 48-59.
Ahmad SA, Sayed MHSU, Khan MH. Arsenicosis: Neoplastic manifestations of skin. Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine (JOPSOM) 1998; 17:110-5.
Chowdhury M. Ground water tragedy and our duties. The Bangladesh observer; 2006: 1-3.
Mahmood, S.A.I. 2002. Arsenic is the silent killer. The Bangladesh Observer, 9th May, 2002.
Ahmad SA, Muyeen-us-Safa AKM, Sayed MHSU. Arsenic in drinking water and urinary level of arsenic. Environ Sci 2001; 8: 417-23.
Ohtsuka PR, Yamamoto PK, Watanabe DC, Inaoka DT. Effect of chronic ingestion of arsenic contaminated water in rural communities of Bangladesh. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. University of Tokyo. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; 2001: 1-13.
Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Sengupta MK, Rahaman MM, Chowdhury UK. Arsenic groundwater
ntamination in middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: a future danger? Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111: 1194-201.
Smith AH, Lingas EO, Rahman M. Contamination of drinking water by arsenic in Bangladesh, a public health emergency, bulletin of the world health organization. 2000; 78(9): 1093-110.
BAMWSP. Data Book. Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project; 2004:5.
Chowdhury QI 2002. Arsenic poising: we are at risk. The Daily Star; 2004:1-6.
ttp:www.thedailystar.net/dailystarnews/20001/10/n20 11009.htm (Accessed 22nd October 2006); 2002.
WHO. Arsenic in drinking water (internet). Fact sheet no.210. Bangladesh. 2001. http: //www. chelationtheraphyonline.com/articles/ p99.htp (Accessed 1st March 2007).
Akhter HH, Karim F, Elahi ME. A study to identify the risk factors affecting nutritional status of adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine (JOPSOM).1998; 17:8-9.
Hsueh M. Chen GS, Wu MM, Kuo TL, Chen CJ. Multiple risk factors associated with arsenic induced skin cancer. Effects of chronic liver diseases and malnutrition status. Br J Cancer 1995; 71:109-14.
Chung JS, Haque R, Guha Mazumder DN, Moore Le, Ghosh N, Samanta S et al. Blood concentration of methionine, selenium, beta carotene, and other micronutrients in a case control study of arsenic induced skin lesion in west Bengal, India. Environ re. 2006; 101(20): 230-7.
Steinmaus C, Carrigan K, Kalman D, Atallah R, Yuan Y,Smith AH. Dietary intake and arsenic methylation in a US. Population. Environ Health Perpect. 2005; 113: 1153-9.
Maharjan M, Watanabe C, Ahmad SA, Umezaki M, Ohtsuka R. Mutual interaction between nutritional status and chronic arsenic toxicity due to groundwater contamination in an area of Terai, lowland Nepal. Journal of Epidemiology and community health.2007; 61: 389-94.
Statistical Pocket Book of Bangladesh. Bangladesh bureau of statistics planning division. Ministry of Planning Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh; 2002:3,126, 363.
Mazumder DN, Haque R, Ghosh N. Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in west Bengal, India. Int J Epidemiol 1998:871-2.
Mitra SR, Mazumder DNG, Basu A, Block G, Haque R, Samanate S et al. Nutritional factors and susceptibility to arsenic caused skin lesions in west Bengal, India. Environ Health Perspective 2004; 112: 1104-9.
Borgono JM, Vicent P, Venturino H. Infante A Arsenic in the drinking water of Antofagasta.Epidemiological and clinical study before and after the installation of the treatment plant. Environ Health Perspect 1997; 45:5895-9.
Zaldivar R. Gullier Environmental and clinical investigations on the endemic chronic arsenic poisoning in infants and children.Zbl Bakt Hyg I Abt Orig b 1997; 165:226-34.
Moinuddin. Arsenic contamination as a major health hazard in Bangladesh. Part three. Drinking death in groundwater, 2002: 1-5.
Ahmad SA, Maharjan M, Watanabe C, Ohtsuka R. Arsenicosis in two villages in Terai, lowland Nepal. Environ Sci 2004; 11: 179-88.
Watanabe C, Miyazaki K, Ohtsuka R, Inaoka T. Arsenic contamination of ground: a Bangladesh survey riken, review no.35, focused on new trends in bio trace elements research; 2001:19-22.
Minamoto K, Taylor CGNM, Moji K, Karim E, Rahaman M. Arsenic contaminated water and extent of acute childhood malnutrition (wasting) in rural Bangladesh, Environmental science, 2005; 12 : 283-91.
Islam LN, Nabi AHMN, Rahman MM, Khan MA, Kazi A. Association of clinical complications with nutritional status and the prevalence of leucopenia among arsenic patients in Bangladesh, International Journal of environmental research and public health 2004; 1: 74-84.
Milton AH, Hasan Z, Shahidullah SM, Sharmin S, Jakariya MD, Rahaman M et al. Association between nutritional status and arsenicosis due to chronic arsenic exposure in Bangladesh .International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2004; 14:99-108.
Mitra AK, Bose BK, Humayan K, Das BK, Hussain M. in arsenic related health problems among hospital patient in Southern Bangladesh. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 2002; 20: 1-2.
Yoshida T, Yamauchi H, Sun FN. Chronic health effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water: dose-response relationships in review. Toxical Appl Pharmacol 2004; 198 : 243-52.
Guha M, Chattopadhyay A, Nagdeve DA. Environmental health catastrophe in eastern India: a case study of arsenic morbidity in west Bengal. The international journal of third world medicine; 2006:1-2.
Garrow JS, James WPT, Ralph A. Human nutrition and dietetics. Churchill Livingstone Publisher Limited; 2000: 518.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.