Health Culture and Presenting a Paradigmatic Model Focusing on Human Papillomavirus Disease

  • Narges Soltanizadeh IAU (Islamic Azad University), North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohsen Ameri Shahrabi IAU (Islamic Azad University), North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Masjedi Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Elaheh Ainy Mail Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Esmaeel Kavousy IAU (Islamic Azad University), North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
  • Syyed Mahmoud Hashemi IAU (Islamic Azad University), North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
Keywords:
Human Papillomavirus, Health Policy, Faculty, Clergy

Abstract

Objective: In this study, we developed a paradigmatic model focusing on human papillomavirus (HPV) diseases, in order to formulate a theory by investigating pathology in health culture using Grounded Theory, as an inductive and exploratory research method.
Materials and methods: It was a qualitative study, and data were collected using in-depth interviews with 20 people (10 men and 10 women) with cultural and religious specialties (clergy). In total, twenty interviews were conducted (mean duration = 45 min) using a semi-structured guide consisting of open-ended questions. All recordings were transcribed verbatim in Persian. All items were extracted based on the participants' responses and related literature. After data collection, the basic theory analysis was performed in terms of the three steps as follows: free coding, axial encryption, the implementation, refinement, and writing the theories in line with selective coding theoretical models. Finally, the paradigm model was determined from the presented models.
Results: The paradigm model emerged from professors, clergy, and authorized people, showed that religious taboos about sexually transmitted diseases; lack of wise management, comprehensive supervision, compliance with health standards in the country, proper legislation regarding sexually transmitted diseases as causal factors, awareness, health education in the country, public demand for health, individual dignity, punishment for health detractors, familiarity with individual rights as intervening factors, concern for human lives, health, and belief in fatalism; ethnic differences; irresponsibility; risk perception; high cost of HPV vaccine; immorality in health speech; disregard for people's lives; gender differences as contextual factors; and the consequences is increasing burden of diseases due to sexually transmitted disease such as (HPV).
Conclusion: It seems the overall lack of a health-based approach could be a major concern due to the weakness of cultural management in society that requires the involvement and intervention of all policymakers, health planners, authorized people, professors, elites, and clerics to control this major cultural health problem.

References

1 Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM, et al. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 2010; 127: 2893-917.
2. Barr E, Sings HL. Prophylactic HPV vaccines: new interventions for cancer control. Vaccine 2008; 26: 6244-57.
3. Zare M, Malek Afzeli H, Jandghi J, Alammeh MR, Kolahdoz M, Asadi O. Effect of training regarding puberty on knowledge, attitude and practice of 12-14 year old girls. Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences 2006; 14: 18-26.
4. Brabin L, Roberts SA, Farzaneh F, Kitchener HC. Future acceptance of adolescent human papillomavirus vaccination: A survey of parental attitudes. Vaccine 2006; 24: 3087-94.
5. Harrison MI. Diagnosing organizations: Methods, models, and processes. Sage Publications; 3rd Edition, 2004.
6. Sandfort TGM, Ehrhardt AA. Sexual health: a useful public health paradigm or a moral imperative? Arch Sex Behav 2004; 33: 181-7.
7. Solanas A, Patsakis C, Conti M, Vlachos IS, Ramos V, Falcone F, et al. Smart health: a context-aware health paradigm within smart cities. IEEE Commun Mag 2014; 52: 74-81.
8. Marlow LAV, Waller J, Wardle J. Parental attitudes to pre-pubertal HPV vaccination. Vaccine 2007; 25: 1945-52.
9. Turiho AK, Okello ES, Muhwezi WW, Harvey S, Byakika-Kibwika P, Meya D, et al. Effect of school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on adolescent girls’ knowledge and acceptability of the HPV vaccine in Ibanda district in Uganda. Afr J Reprod Health 2014; 18: 45-53.
10. Klug SJ, Hukelmann M, Blettner M. Knowledge about infection with human papillomavirus: a systematic review. Prev Med 2008; 46: 87-98.
11. Haedicke J, Iftner T. Human papillomaviruses and cancer. Radiother Oncol 2013; 108: 397-402.
12. Joseph NP, Clark JA, Bauchner H, Walsh JP, Mercilus G,
Figaro J, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding HPV vaccination: ethnic and cultural differences between African-American and Haitian immigrant women. Women's Health Issues 2012; 22: e571-9.
13. Salad J, Verdonk P, de Boer F, Abma TA. “A Somali girl is Muslim and does not have premarital sex. Is vaccination really necessary?” A qualitative study into the perceptions of Somali women in the Netherlands about the prevention of cervical cancer. International Journal for Equity in Health 2015; 14: 68.
14. Natan MB, Aharon O, Palickshvili Sh, Gurman V. Attitude of Israeli mothers with vaccination of their daughters against human papilloma virus. J Pediatr Nurs 2011; 26: 70-7.
15. Mathur MB, Mathur VS, Reichling DB. Participation in the decision to become vaccinated against human papillomavirus by California high school girls and the predictors of vaccine status. J Pediatr Health Care 2010; 24: 14-24.
16. Fogel J, Ebadi C. Religious categories and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: Attitudes, intentions, and behaviors regarding vaccination. Journal of Medical Marketing: Device, Diagnostic and Pharmaceutical Marketing 2011; 11: 303-11.
17. Niccolai LM, McBride V, Julian PR, Connecticut
HPV-IMPACT Working Group. Sources of information for assessing human papillomavirus vaccination history among young women. Vaccine 2014; 32: 2945-7.
18. Songthap A, Pitisuttithum P, Kaewkungwal J, Fungladda W, Bussaratid V. Knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of a human papilloma virus vaccine among students, parents and teachers in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2012; 43: 340-53.
19. Sasidharanpillai S,Bhat PV, Kamath V, Aswathyraj S, Aswathyraj S, Govindakarnavar A. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Concerning Human Papilloma Virus Infection and its Health Effects among Rural Women, Karnataka, South India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015; 16: 5053-8.
20. Abdullahi LH, Kagina BM, Cassidy T, Adebayo EF, Wiysonge CS, Hussey GD. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on adolescent vaccination among adolescents, parents and teachers in Africa: A systematic review. Vaccine 2016; 34: 3950-60.
21. Waller J, Marlow LA V, Wardle J. Mothers' attitudes towards preventing cervical cancer through human papillomavirus vaccination: a qualitative study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15: 1257-61.
22. Zimet GD. Improving adolescent health: focus on HPV vaccine acceptance. J Adolesc Health 2005; 37: S17-23.
23. Hansen CE, Credle M, Shapiro ED, Niccolai LM. “It All Depends”: A Qualitative Study of Parents’ Views of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for their Adolescents at Ages 11–12 years. J Cancer Educ 2016; 31: 147-52.
24. Hilton S, Patterson C, Smith E, Bedford H, Hunt K. Teenagers’ understandings of and attitudes towards vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases: a qualitative study. Vaccine 2013; 31: 2543-50.
25. Silva PM, Silva IM, Interaminense IN, Linhares FM, Serrano SQ, Pontes CM. Knowledge and attitudes about human papillomavirus and vaccination. Escola Anna Nery 2018; 22: e20170390.
Published
2020-10-18
How to Cite
1.
Soltanizadeh N, Ameri Shahrabi M, Masjedi MR, Ainy E, Kavousy E, Hashemi SM. Health Culture and Presenting a Paradigmatic Model Focusing on Human Papillomavirus Disease. J Fam Reprod Health. 14(2):116-123.
Section
Original Articles