Weight Development in Children After Gastric Bypass Surgery
AbstractObjective: More and more young obese women get pregnant after undergoing gastric bypass surgery (GBP) but little is known about weight development in their offspring. The first aim of this study was to investigate weight development of children whose mothers have undergone GBP before pregnancy and compare them to age specific reference values in Sweden. Second aim was to study the frequency of small for gestational age (SGA) in this population.
Materials and methods: Weight of offspring (38 male and 28 female) where the mother had undergone GBP before pregnancy were studied from birth up to 18 months of age and compared to age-specific reference values in Sweden.
Results: The boys to mothers who had undergone GBP before pregnancy weighed more than Swedish reference values at 6 months, 8.44 ± 1.18 kilogram (kg) (n = 35) vs. 7.98 ± 0.81 kg (n = 1388; p = 0.001), and less at 18 months, 11.54 ± 0.93 kg (n = 19) vs. 12.27 ± 1.19 kg (n = 862; p < 0.001). The girls to mothers who had undergone GBP before pregnancy weighed more than Swedish reference values at 6 months, 7.84 ± 1.00 kg (n = 28) vs. 7.50 ± 0.77 kg (n = 1375; p = 0.020). Frequency of SGA was 3.0%.
Conclusion: No clear pattern was found concerning the short-term weight development of the children. However, studies with larger material and more follow up time must be performed.
2. The public Health Agency in Sweden. Folkhälsan i Sverige, 2014.
3. Ovesen P, Rasmussen S, Kesmodel U. Effect of prepregnancy maternal overweight and obesity on pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:305-12.
4. Suter M, Giusti V, Heraief E, Zysset F, Calmes JM. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: initial 2-year experience. Surgical Endoscopy 2003;17:603-9.
5. Suter M, Donadini A, Romy S, Demartines N, Giusti V. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: significant long-term weight loss, improvement of obesity-related comorbidities and quality of life. Ann Surg 2011;254:267-73.
6. Kjaer MM, Nilas L. Pregnancy after bariatric surgery – a review of benefits and risks. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2013;92:264-71.
7. Marceau P, Kaufman D, Biron S, Hould FS, Lebel S, Marceau S, et al. Outcome of pregnancies after biliopancreatic diversion. Obes Surg 2004;14:318–24.
8. Printen KJ, Scott D. Pregnancy following gastric bypass for the treatment of morbid obesity. Am Surg 1982;48: 363–5.
9. Kral JG, Biron S, Simard S, Hould FS, Lebel S, Marceau S, et al. Large maternal weight loss from obesity surgery prevents transmission of obesity to children who were followed for 2 to 18 years. Pediatrics 2006;118:e1644–9.
10. Marsal K, Persson PH, Larsen T, Lilja H, Selbing A, Sultan B. Intrauterine growth curves based on ultrasonically estimated foetal weights. Acta Paediatr 1996;85:843-8.
11. Wikland KA, Luo ZC, Niklasson A, Karlberg J. Swedish population-based longitudinal reference values from birth to 18 years of age for height, weight and head circumference. Acta Paediatr 2002;91:739–54.
12. Niklasson A, Ericson A, Fryer JG, Karlberg J, Lawrence C, Karlberg P. An update of the Swedish reference standards for weight, length and head circumference at birth for given gestational age (1977–1981). Acta Paediatr Scand 1991;80:756-62.
13. Dixon JB, Dixon ME, O'Brien PE. Birth outcomes in obese women after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:965-72.
14. Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000;320:1240.
15. Smith J, Cianflone K, Biron S, Hould FS, Lebel S, Marceau S,et al. Effects of maternal surgical weight loss in mothers on intergenerational transmission of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:4275-83.
16. Willmer M, Berglind D, Tynelius P, Ghaderi A, Näslund E, Rasmussen F. Children's weight status, body esteem, and self-concept after maternal gastric bypass surgery.Surg Obes Relat Dis 2015;11:927-32.
17. Woodard GA, Encarnacion B, Peraza J, Hernandez-Boussard T, Morton J. Halo effect for bariatric surgery: collateral weight loss in patients' family members. Arch Surg 2011;146:1185–90.
18. Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare 2019, Statistics regarding pregnancies and deliveries, Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, viewed 22 June 2019,
19. Roos N, NeoviusM, Cnattingius S, TrolleLagerros Y, Sääf M, Granath F, et al. Perinatal outcomes after bariatric surgery: nationwide population based matched cohort study. The BMJ 2013;347:f6460.
20. Kjaer MM, Lauenborg J, Breum BM, Nilas L. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcome after bariatric surgery: a nationwide register-based matched cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;208:464.e1-5.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.