Bacteria Isolated from Post-Partum Infections
AbstractObjective: This study was undertaken with an aim to determine bacterial species involved in post partum infections and also their abundance in patients admitted to at Khanevadeh hospital. In this study out of three different kinds of postpartum infections (i.e. genital, breast and urinary tract), only genital infection is considered.Materials and Methods: Post partum infection among 6077 patients (inpatients and re-admitted patients) of Khanevadeh hospital from 2003 till 2008 was studied in this descriptive study. Samples were collected from patients for laboratory diagnosis to find out the causative organisms.Results: Follow up of mothers after delivery revealed 7.59% (461 patients) had post partum infection, out of which 1.03% (63 patients) were re-hospitalized. Infection was more often among younger mothers. Bacteria isolated and identified were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora of the site of infection. Though, some pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis,were also the causative agents. The commonest infection was infection at the site of episiotomy. Conclusion: Puerperal infection was detected in of 7.59% mothers. Bacteria isolated were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora. However; some pathogenic bacteria were isolated.
Hulton LJ, Olmsted RN, Treston- Aurand J, Craig C. Effect of postdischarge surveillance on rates of infectious complications after cesarean section. Am J Infect Control 1992; 20: 198- 201.
Cunnigham FG, Gant NF, KJ Leveno,Gilstrap LC, Hauth JC, Wenstrom KD. Puerperal bleeding, Puerperal period, Puerperal infection. In: F.Gary Cunnigham, Norman F; Gant, Kenneth, J; Williams obstetrics. 21th eds. USA: Mc Graw – Hill, 2001: 619 – 85.
Nathan L; Leveno KJ. Group A streptococcal puerperal sepsis: Historical review and 1990 resurgence. Infect Dis Obstet Gynaecol 1994; 1:252.
Stefonek KR, Maerz LL, Nielsen MP, Besser RE, Cieslak PR. Group A streptococcal puerperal sepsis preceded by positive surveillance cultures. Obstet Gynaecol 2001;98(5 Pt 1):846-8.
Ni H, Rossignol AM. Maternal death among women with pregnancies of family planning in Schuan, China. Epidemiology 1994 ;5:490-4.
Yokoe DS, Christiansen CL, Johnson R, Sands KE, Livingston J, Shtatland ES, et al. Epidemiology and surveillance of post partum infections. Emerging Infectious Disease 2001; 7: 837 – 41.
Panchal S, Arria AM, Labhsetwar SA. Maternal mortality during hospital admission for delivery. Anesth Analg2001;93:134-41.
Sands K, Vineyard G, Platt R. Surgical site infection occurring after hospital discharge. J Infect Dis 1996; 173: 963-70.
Soper DE, Brockwell WJ, Dalton HP. The importance of wound infection in antibiotic features in the therapy of post partum endometritis. Surg Gynaecol Obstet 1992; 174 – 265.
Liu S, Liston RM, Joseph KS, Heaman M, Sauve R, Kramer MS; Maternal Health Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. Maternal mortality and severe morbidity associated with low-risk planned cesarean delivery versus planned vaginal delivery at term. CMAJ 2007 ; 176(4): 455–60 .
Ismail MA, Chandler AE, BeemAE. Chlamydial colonization of the cervix in the pregnant adolescents. JReprod Med 1985;30: 549.
Goldaber KG, Wendel PJ, McIntire DD, Wendel GD Jr. Postpartum perineal morbidity after fourth degree perineal repair. Am J Obstet Gynaecol 1993; 168: 489- 93.
Sherman D, Lurie S, Betzer M, Pinhasi Y, Arieli S, Boldur I. Uterine flora at cesarean and its relationship to postpartum endometritis. Obstet Gynecol1999;94:787- 91.
Burrows LJ, Meyn LA, Weber AM. Maternal morbidity associated with vaginal versus cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:907-12.
Koroukian SM. Relative risk of post partum complications in the Ohio Medicaid population: Vaginal versus cesarean delivery. Med Care Res Rev 2004;61:203-24.