Journal of Family and Reproductive Health 2017. 11(2):67-73.

Effects of Social Support and Self-Efficacy on Maternal Prenatal Cares Among the First-Time Pregnant Women, Iranshahr, Iran
Hossien Izadirad, Shamsoddin Niknami, Iraj Zareban, Alireza Hidarnia


Objective: Social support and perceived self-efficacy affect health-related behaviors and play an important role on mothers' adaptability with pregnancy. This paper aims to study the impact of educational interventions based on social support and perceived self-efficacy on maternal prenatal care.
Materials and methods: The present study is a before after experimental study in which 90 first-time pregnant women were randomly selected and divided into two 45- participants experimental and control groups. Data were collected from 21 January to 20 May 2016. Determining the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, we used the panel of experts and Cronbach's alpha. The data collected from the two groups were compared before and 3 months after intervention and were analyzed by SPSS 18.
Results: Unlike the control subjects, there was a significant difference in maternal prenatal cares before and after an educational intervention between the scores of social support and perceived self-efficacy in the experimental group (p < 0.05). Before intervention, the average score of the experimental group was 12.62 ± 2.63 that rose to 17.71 ± 1.56, three months after the educational intervention, which is statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was a direct and positive relation between self-efficacy and maternal prenatal cares (p = 0.000, r = 0.538). Social support and self-efficacy predicted the variance of maternal cares by 69.2%.
Conclusion: Developing an educational program based on social support and perceived self-efficacy on maternal prenatal cares is helpful and efficient. The health system, family and society are in charge of making facilities and opportunities to improve social support and perceived self-efficacy in pregnant women, resulting in improved maternal prenatal cares.



Pregnant Women; Self-Efficacy; Social Support

Full Text:



Sajjan P, Pattanshetti JI, Padmini C, Nagathan VM, Sajjanar M, Siddiqui T.Oral Health Related Awareness and Practices among Pregnant Women in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. J Int Oral Health 2015;7:1-5.

Heaman MI, Newburn-Cook CV, Green CG, Elliott LJ, Helewa ME. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a comparison of indices. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2008 1;8:15.

Bhutta ZA, Das JK, Rizvi A, Gaffey M F, Walker N, Horton S,et al. Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: What can be done and at what cost? Lancet 2013; 382:452-77.

Zhianian A, Zareban I, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Rahimi S. Improving Self-care Behaviours in Pregnant Women in Zahedan: Applying Self-efficacy Theory. Caspian Journal of Health Research 2015; 1:18-26.

Dunkel-Schetter C, Sagrestano LM, Feldman P, Killingsworth C. Social support and pregnancy. Handbook of social support and the family. Springer; 1996. 375-412.

Shahry P, Kalhori SR, Esfandiyari A, Zamani-Alavijeh

F. A Comparative Study of Perceived Social Support and Self-Efficacy among Women with Wanted and Unwanted Pregnancy. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery 2016;4:176-85.

Singh D, Lample M, Earnest J. The involvement of men in maternal health care: cross-sectional, pilot case studies from Maligita and Kibibi, Uganda. Reprod Health 2014;11:68.

Straughen JK, Caldwell CH, Young AA Jr, Misra DP. Partner support in a cohort of African American families and its influence on pregnancy outcomes and prenatal health behaviors. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2013;13:187.

Shah MK, Gee RE, Theall KP. Partner support and impact on birth outcomes among teen pregnancies in the United States. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2014;27:14-9.

Ferri CP, Mitsuhiro SS, Barros MC, Chalem E, Guinsburg R, Patel V, et al. The impact of maternal experience of violence and common mental disorders on neonatal outcomes: a survey of adolescent mothers in Sao Paulo, Brazil. BMC Public Health 2007;7:209.

Lindhorst T, Oxford M. The long-term effects of intimate partner violence on adolescent mothers’ depressive symptoms. Soc Sci Med 2008;66:1322 - 33.

Shorey S, Chan SW, Chong YS, He HG. Predictors of Maternal Parental Self- Efficacy Among Primiparas in the Early Postnatal Period. Western Journal of Nursing Research 2015;37:1604-22.

Sercekus P, Başkale H. Effects of antenatal education on fear of childbirth,maternal self-efficacy and parental attachment. Midwifery 2016;34;166–72.

Bandura A. Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Education Behavior 2004;31:143-64.

Cheng D, Schwarz EB, Douglas E, Horon I. Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors. Contraception 2009;79:194-8.

Hendricks CS, Hendricks DL, Webb SJ, Bonner Davis J, Spencer-Morgan B. Fostering self efficacy as an ethical mandate in health promotion practice and research. Online Journal of Health Ethics 2008; 2:1-13.

Daryani S, Shojaeezadeh D, Batebi A, Yazdani Charati J, Naghibi A. The effect of education based on a health belief model in women’s practice with regard to the Pap smear test. Journal of Cancer Policy 2016;8: 51–56.

Song KJ. The effects of self efficacy promoting cardiac rehabilitation program on self efficacy, health behavior and quality of life. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 2003; 33:510-8.

Mortazavi F, Delara M ,Akaberi A. Male involvement in prenatal care:Impacts on pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Journal of Urmia Nursing and Midwifery Faculty2014; 12:63-71.

Khoramabadi M, Dolatian M, Hajian S, Zamanian M, Taheripanah R, Sheikhan Z, Mahmoodi Z & Seyedi-Moghadam A. Effects of Education Based on Health Belief Model on Dietary Behaviors of Iranian Pregnant Women. Glob J Health Sci 2015; 8: 230-9.

Rise J, Thompson M, Verplanken B. Measuring implementation intentions in the context of the theory of planned behavior. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology2003; 44: 87-95.

Abdollahpour S, Ramezani S, Khosravi A. Perceived Social Support among Family in Pregnant Women. Int J Pediatr 2015; 3:879-88.

Teitler JO. Father involvement, child health and maternal health behavior. Children and Youth Services Review 2001;23:403-25.

Warren PL.First-time mothers:social support and

confidence in infant care. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2005;50:479–88.

Gao L, Sun K, Chan SW. Social support and parenting self-efficacy among Chinese women in the perinatal period. Midwifery 2014;30:532–8.

Ney PG, Fung T, Wickett AR, Beaman-Dodd C. The effects of pregnancy loss on women's health. Social science & medicine 1994;38:1193-200.

Elsenbruch S, Benson S, Rucke M, Rose M, Dudenhausen J, Pincus-Knackstedt MK, et al. Social support during pregnancy:effects on maternal depressive symptoms, smoking and pregnancy outcome. Human reproduction 2007; 22: 869-77.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.