Chronic Stress and Limbic-Hypothalamopituitary-Adrenal Axis (LHPA) Response in Female Reproductive system
AbstractThe hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is a critical adaptive system that maximizes survival potential in the face of physical or psychological challenge. The principal end products of the HPA axis, glucocorticoid hormones, act on multiple organ systems, including the brain, to maintain homeostatic balance. The brain is a target of stress, and the hippocampus is the first brain region, besides the hypothalamus, to be recognized as a target of glucocorticoids. These anatomical areas in brain are limbic system, and in particular the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amigdal that have multiple control points in regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. The studies show the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) activity and regulation of gonadal function in men and women is under the control of the HPA. This regulation is complex and sex steroids are important regulators of GnRH and gonadotropin release through classic feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Chronic stress can have a deleterious effect on the reproductive axis that, for females, is manifested in reduced pulsatile gonadotropin secretion and increased incidence of ovulatory abnormalities and infertility. The limbic–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (LHPA) axis suggests a functional role for gonadal steroids in the regulation of a female’s response to stress.
Hippocrates. On airs, waters, and places. New York: Heinmann,1923.
Cannon WB. The Wisdom of the Body. New York: Norton, 1939.
Bernard C. An introduction to the study of experimental medicine.1949; (2nd Ed). New York: HC. Greene, 1927.
Selye H. Stress and the general adaptation syndrome. British Med J 1950;1: 1383-92.
Selye H. On the hormonal activity of a steroid compound.Science 1941; 94:94.
Selye H. The general-adaptation-syndrome. Annu Rev Med 1951; 2:327-42.
Selye H. A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. 1936. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998;10:230-1.
Chrousos GP, Gold PW. The concepts of stress system disorders: overview of behavioral and physical homeostasis. J Am Med Assoc.1992; 267:1244–52.
Meany MJ, Bhatnagar S, Larocque S, McCormick CM, Shanks N, Sharma S, et al. Early environment and the development of individual differences in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal stress response. In: C.R. Pfeffer, Editor, Severe stress and mental disturbance in children, American Psychiatric Press Inc, Washington, DC 1996: 85–127.
Sapolsky RM, Neuroendocrinology of the stress- response. In: J. Becker, S.M. Breedlove and D. Crews, Editors, Behavioral endocrinology, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 1992: 287–324.
Miller HL, Smith AD. Adapted from The Stress Solution. American Psychological Association 2004.
Miller DB, O'Callaghan JP. Neuroendocrine aspects of the response to stress. Metabolism 2002; 51: 5-10.
Sabban LE, Kventnansky R. Stress-triggered activation of gene expression in cathecolaminergic systems: dynamics of transcriptional events. Trends in Neurosciences 2001; 24: 91-8.
Abercrombie ED, Jacobs BL. Single-unit response of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus of freely moving cats: Acutely presented stressful and nonstressful stimuli. J Neurosci.1987; 7: 2837–43.
Cecchi M, Khoshbouei H, Javors M, Morilak DA. Modulatory effects of norepinephrine in the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis on behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to acute stress. Neurosci 2002; 112: 13–21.
Munck A, Guyre PM, Holbrook NJ. Physiological functions of glucocorticoids in stress and their relation to pharmacological actions. Endocr Rev 1984; 5: 25-44.
Tsigos C, Chrousos GP.Physiology of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in health and dysregulation in psychiatric and autoimmune disorders. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1994; 23:451–66.
Herman JP, Ostrander MM, Mueller NK, Figueiredo H. Limbic system mechanisms of stress regulation: Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 2005; 29: 1201-13.
Antoni F. Vasopressinergic control of pituitary adrenocorticotropin secretion comes of age. Front Neuroendocrinol 1993; 14:76–122.
Bao AM, Meynen G, Swaab DF. The stress system in depression and neurodegeneration: focus on the human hypothalamus. Brain Res Rev 2008; 57: 531-53.
Aguilera G. Regulation of pituitary ACTH secretion during chronic stress. Front Neuroendocrinol 1994;15: 321–50.
Cunningham ET Jr, Bohn MC, Sawchenko PE.Organization of adrenergic inputs to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the rat. J Comp Neurol 1990; 292: 651–67.
Makino S, Hashimoto K, Gold PW. Multiple feedback mechanisms activating corticotropin-releasing hormone system in the brain during stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002;73: 147-58.
Issa AM, Rowe W, Gauthier S, Meaney MJ. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in aged, cognitively impaired and cognitively unimpaired rats. J Neurosci 1990; 10: 3247–54.
Shin LM, Orr SP, Carson MA, Rauch SL, Macklin ML, Lasko NB,et al. Regional cerebral blood flow in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex during traumatic imagery in male and female Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61:168-76.
Liston C, Miller MM, Goldwater DS, Radley JJ, Rocher AB, Hof PR,et al. Stress-induced alterations in prefrontal cortical dendritic morphology predict selective impairments in perceptual attentional set- shifting. J Neurosci 2006; 26: 7870-4.
Romeo RD, McEwen BS. Stress and the adolescent brain. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006 ; 1094: 202-14.
Selye H. The Stress of Life. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill, 1976.
Luine VN, Beck KD, Bowman RE, Frankfurt M, Maclusky NJ. Chronic Stress and Neural Function: Accounting for Sex and Age. J Neuroendocrinol 2007 ;19:743-51.
Ren-Patterson RF, Cochran LW, Holmes A, Lesch KP, Lu B, Murphy DL. Gender-dependent modulation of brain monoamines and anxiety-like behaviors in mice with genetic serotonin transporter and BDNF deficiencies. Cell Mol Neurobiol 2006; 26: 755–80.
Kitraki E, Kremmyda O, Youlatos D, Alexis MN, Kittas C. Gender-dependent alterations in corticosteroid receptor status and spatial performance following 21 days of restraint stress. Neuroscience 2004; 125: 47–55.
Galea LA, McEwen BS, Tanapat P, Deak T, Spencer RL, Dhabha FS. Sex differences in dendritic atrophy of CA3 pyramidal neurons in response to chronic restraint stress. Neuroscience 1997; 81: 689–97.
McLaughlin KF, Baran SE, Wright RL, Conrad CD. Chronic stress enhances spatial memory in ovariectomized female rats despite CA3 dendritic retraction. Possible involvement of CA1 neurons. Neuroscience 2005; 135: 1045–54.
Beck KD, Luine VN. Sex differences in behavioral and neurochemical profiles after chronic stress: role of housing conditions. Physiol Behav 2002; 75: 661–73.
Bhatnagar S, Huber R, Nowak N, Trotter P. Lesions of the posterior paraventricular thalamus block habituation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to repeated restraint. J Neuroendocrinol 2002; 14: 403–10.
Young EA. Sex differences in response to exogenous corticosterone: a rat model of hypercortisolemia. Mol Psychiatry 1996;1: 313-9.
Patchev VK, Almeida OF. Gonadal steroids exert facilitating and "buffering" effects on glucocorticoid- mediated transcriptional regulation of corticotropin- releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptor genes in rat brain. J Neurosci 1996;16:7077-8.
Daley CA, Macfarlane MS, Sakurai H, Adams TE.Effect of stress-like concentrations of cortisol on follicular development and the preovulatory surge of LH in sheep. J Reprod Fertil 1999;117:11-6.
Breen KM, Billings HJ, Wagenmaker ER, Wessinger EW, Karsch FJ. Endocrine basis for disruptive effects of cortisol on preovulatory events. endocrinology 2005; 146: 2107-15.
Oakley AE, Breen KM, Clarke IJ, Karsch FJ, Wagenmaker ER, Tilbrook AJ. Cortisol reduces gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse frequency in follicular phase ewes: influence of ovarian steroids. Endocrinology 2009;150:341-9.
Radley JJ, Rocher AB, Miller M, Janssen WG, Liston C, Hof PR, et al. Repeated stress induces dendritic spine loss in the rat medial prefrontal cortex Cereb Cortex 2006;16 :313-20.