Journal of Family and Reproductive Health 2017. 11(4):202-210.

Perceived Stigma in People Living With HIV in Qom
Davoud Pourmarzi, Ashraf Khoramirad, Mina Gaeeni

Abstract


Objective: This study aimed to report on perceived stigma by PLWH and factors that affect it.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 120 PLWH in Qom, Iran from November 2015 to April 2016. Persian version of Fife and Wright's scale was used to measure perceived stigma.
Results: The mean score of stigma was 73.19 ± 12.23 (range: 48-97). The means of external stigma and internal stigma were 43.70 ± 8.61 (range: 19-60), and 29.49 ± 5.32 (range: 17-40), respectively. Living in a rural areas (β = 10.341, p = 0.006), unemployment status (β = 6.910, p = 0.006), and poor support from family members (β = 4.772, p = 0.028) significantly increased the level of perceived stigma. PLWH experience a considerable level of stigma in their daily life. Mass media involvement to increase public awareness and reduce HIV related stigma need be more highlighted.
Conclusion: Working with the patients' families, interventions in the rural areas and workplaces, and providing social supports is necessary to minimize the HIV related stigma.

Keywords


HIV; Social Stigma; Social Support; Rural Population; Unemployment

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization. Global health observatory (GHO) data 2016 [Available from:

http://www.who.int/gho/hiv/epidemic_status/prevalence_text/en/.

National AIDS Committee Secretariat MoHaME. Islamic Republic of Iran AIDS Progress Report On Monitoring of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV and AIDS. 2015.

Haghdoost AA, Mostafavi E, Mirzazadeh A, Navadeh S, Feizzadeh A, Fahimfar N, et al. Modelling of HIV/AIDS in Iran up to 2014. Journal of AIDS and HIV Research 2011; 3:231-9.

Nikooseresht Z, Rimaz S, Asadi-Lari M, Nedjat S, Merghati-Khoee E, Saiepour N. Reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the human immunodeficiency virus specific World Health Organization quality of life BREF questionnaire. Journal of Biostatistics and Epidemiology 2015; 1:37-44.

Vyavaharkar M, Moneyham L, Murdaugh C, Tavakoli A. Factors associated with quality of life among rural women with HIV disease. AIDS Behav 2012; 16:295-303.

Antela A, Aguiar C, Compston J, Hendry B, Boffito M, Mallon P, et al. The role of tenofovir alafenamide in future HIV management. HIV Med 2016; 17:4-16.

Chambers LA, Rueda S, Baker DN, Wilson MG, Deutsch R, Raeifar E, et al. Stigma, HIV and health: a qualitative synthesis. BMC Public Health 2015; 15:848.

Liu Y, Canada K, Shi K, Corrigan P. HIV-related

stigma acting as predictors of unemployment of people living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care 2012; 24:129-35.

Holzemer WL, Uys LR. Managing AIDS stigma. SAHARA J 2004; 1:165-74.

Brent RJ. The value of reducing HIV stigma. Soc Sci Med 2016; 151:233-40.

UNAIDS. Reduction of HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Genova; 2014.

Katz IT, Ryu AE, Onuegbu AG, Psaros C, Weiser SD, Bangsberg DR, et al. Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: systematic review and meta-synthesis. J Int AIDS Soc 2013; 16:18640.

Rao D, Chen WT, Pearson CR, Simoni JM, Fredriksen-Goldsen K, Nelson K, et al. Social support mediates the relationship between HIV stigma and depression/quality of life among people living with HIV in Beijing, China. Int J STD AIDS 2012; 23:481-4.

Rao D, Pryor JB, Gaddist BW, Mayer R. Stigma, secrecy, and discrimination: ethnic/racial differences in the concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Behav 2008; 12:265-71.

Tzemis D, Forrest JI, Puskas CM, Zhang W, Orchard TR, Palmer AK, et al. Identifying self-perceived HIV-related stigma in a population accessing antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Care 2013; 25:95-102.

Monjok E, Smesny A, Essien EJ. HIV/AIDS - Related Stigma and Discrimination in Nigeria: Review of Research Studies and future directions for Prevention Strategies. Afr J Reprod Health 2009; 13:21-35.

Xu X, Sheng Y, Khoshnood K, Clark K. Factors Predicting Internalized StigmaAmong Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV in Beijing, China. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2017; 28:142-153.

Stangl AL, Brady, L., Fritz, K. Measuring HIV stigma and discrimination. Washington DC; 2012.

United States Agency for International Development. A closer look: the internalization of stigma related to HIV Washington; 2006.

Karamouzian M, Akbari M, Haghdoost AA, Setayesh H, Zolala F. “I am dead to them”: HIV-related stigma experienced by people living with HIV in Kerman, Iran. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2015; 26:46-56.

SeyedAlinaghi S, Paydary K, Kazerooni PA, Hosseini M, Sedaghat A, Emamzadeh-Fard S, et al. Evaluation of stigma index among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in six cities in iran. Thrita 2013; 2:69-75.

Fife BL, Wright ER. The dimensionality of stigma: A comparison of its impact on the self of persons with HIV/AIDS and cancer. J Health Soc Behav 2000; 41:50-67.

Kang E, Rapkin BD, Remien RH, Mellins CA, Oh A. Multiple dimensions of HIV stigma and psychological distress among Asians and Pacific Islanders living with HIV illness. AIDS and Behav 2005; 9:145-54.

Pourmarzi D, Khoramirad A, Ahmari Tehran H, Abedini Z. Validity and Reliability of Persian Version of HIV/AIDS Related Stigma Scale for People Living With HIV/AIDS in Iran. J Family Reprod Health 2015; 9:164-71.

Li X, Wang H, Williams A, He G. Stigma reported by people living with HIV in south central China. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2009; 20:22-30.

Busza J. Literature review: challenging HIV-related stigma and discrimination in Southeast Asia: past successes and future priorities: Population Council, Horizons; 1999.

Carr RL, Gramling LF. Stigma: a health barrier for women with HIV/AIDS. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2004; 15:30-9.

Pourmarzi D, Rimaz S, Merghati Khoei E A. Sexual and reproductive health educational needs in engaged couples in Tehran in 2010. Sexuality Research and Social Policy 2014; 11:225-32.

Mbonu NC, Van Den Borne B, De Vries NK. Gender-related power differences, beliefs and reactions towards people living with HIV/AIDS: An urban study in Nigeria. BMC Public Health 2010; 10:334.

Heckman TG, Anderson ES, Sikkema KJ, Kochman A, Kalichman SC, Anderson T. Emotional distress in nonmetropolitan persons living with HIV disease enrolled in a telephone-delivered, coping improvement group intervention. Health Psychology 2004; 23:94-100.

Gonzalez A, Miller CT, Solomon SE, Bunn JY, Cassidy DG. Size matters: community size, HIV stigma, & gender differences. AIDS and Behav 2009; 13:1205-12.

French H, Greeff M, Watson MJ, Doak CM. HIV stigma and disclosure experiences of people living with HIV in an urban and a rural setting. AIDS Care 2015; 27:1042-6.

Trepka MJ, Fennie KP, Sheehan DM, Lutfi K, Maddox L, Lieb S. Late HIV diagnosis: Differences by rural/urban residence, Florida, 2007-2011. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2014; 28:188-97.

Weis KE, Liese AD, Hussey J, Gibson JJ, Duffus WA. Associations of rural residence with timing of HIV diagnosis and stage of disease at diagnosis, South Carolina 2001-2005. J Rural health 2010; 26:105-12.

Kalichman S, Katner H, Banas E, Kalichman M. Population Density and AIDS-Related Stigma in Large-Urban, Small-Urban, and Rural Communities of the Southeastern USA. Prev Sci 2017; 18:517-25.

Teklehaimanot HD, Teklehaimanot A, Yohannes M, Biratu D. Factors influencing the uptake of voluntary

HIV counseling and testing in rural Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health2016; 16:239.

Reif S, Geonnotti KL, Whetten K. HIV infection and AIDS in the Deep South. Am J Public Health 2006; 96:970-3.

Zukoski AP, Thorburn S. Experiences of stigma and discrimination among adults living with HIV in a low HIV-prevalence context: a qualitative analysis. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2009; 23: 267-76.

Stewart R, Pulerwitz R, Esu-Williams E. Addressing HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination in a workplace program, emerging findings. US: Washington DC: Office of HIV/AIDS, Bureau for Global Health. 2002.

Brown DC, BeLue R, Airhihenbuwa CO. HIV and AIDS-related stigma in the context of family support and race in South Africa. Ethn Health 2010; 15:441-58.

Dahlui M, Azahar N, Bulgiba A, Zaki R, Oche OM, Adekunjo FO, et al. HIV/AIDS Related Stigma and Discrimination against PLWHA in Nigerian Population. PloS One 2015; 10:e0143749.

Kalichman SC, Simbayi LC, Cloete A, Mthembu PP, Mkhonta RN, Ginindza T. Measuring AIDS stigmas in people living with HIV/AIDS: the Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale. AIDS Care 2009; 21:87-93.

Javidan M, Dastmalchian A. Culture and leadership in Iran: The land of individual achievers, strong family ties, and powerful elite. The Academy of Management Executive 2003; 17:127-42.

dos Santos MM, Kruger P, Mellors SE, Wolvaardt G, Van Der Ryst E. An exploratory survey measuring stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa: the People Living with HIV Stigma Index. BMC Public Health 2014; 14:80.

Kelly B, Raphael B, Judd F, Perdices M, Kernutt G, Burnett P, et al. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and HIV infection. Psychosomatics 1998; 39:405-15.

Lyketsos CG, Hoover DR, Guccione M, Dew MA, Wesch JE, Bing EG, et al. Changes in depressive symptoms as AIDS develops. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153:1430-7.

Blalock AC, McDaniel JS, Farber EW. Effect of employment on quality of life and psychological functioning in patients with HIV/AIDS. Psychosomatics 2002; 43:400-4.

Blau G, Petrucci T, McClendon J. Correlates of life satisfaction and unemployment stigma and the impact of length of unemployment on a unique unemployed sample. Career Dev International 2013; 18:257-80.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.